Saturday, January 7, 2017

The Cell: A Visual Tour Of The Building Block Of Life, Jack Challoner, c.2015

This is pretty cool; classification of living organisms has really changed since my college days. In addition, different biologists use different classifications, and in much of the literature, the terminology is used interchangeable.

There are six kingdoms or domains:
  • animal
  • fungi
  • plant
  • protists (crosses over into each)
  • archaea
  • bacteria
The first four are eukaryocytes:
  • animal
  • fungi
  • plant
  • protists
The latter two are prokaryoctyes (old term, containing both Monera):
  • archaea: more closely related to animals than to bacteria
  • bacteria
Kingdom Protista is all eukaryocytes that cannot be placed in animal, fungi, or plants.
  • Animal, plant, and fungi are multicellular
  • Archaea and bacteria are unicellular
  • Protista cross the seam: unicellular and multicellular.
One still sees the Kingdom Monera as recently as 2012. Monera is an archaic term for prokaryocytes; Monera has now been divided into Bacteria and Archaea.

What is the difference between protists and protozoa.

According to this 2012 site, which still uses the term "Monera," the Kingdom Protista is again grouped into three subgroups: protozoa (animal-like); protophyta (plant-like); and, slime moulds. So there you have it. Remember: if you have an organism that is a eukaryocyte (nucleus), you want to try to make it animal, plant, or fungi. If unable to definitely call it plant, animal, or fungi, then call is what is most looks like ( -- animal; -- plant; -- fungi). If the eukaryocyte (nucleus) looks animal list, then the protist is protozoa; if plantlike, then protophyta; if fungi-line, then a slime mold.

Protozoa are mostly aquatic. "Famous protozoa" are the parasitic protozoa: malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis (considered the world's second-deadliest parasite) -- all are apicomplexia (contain spear-like organelle to pierce other eukaryotic cells).

Protozoa are divided into four phyla based on methods of movement and not based on phylogenetic.
  • flagellates (or Mastigophora),
  • amoeboids (or Sarcodina)
  • sporozoans (or Sporozoa, Apicomplexa) -- the deadly parasites (malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis)
  • ciliates (or Ciliophora)
How do sporozoans move? Sporozoa, being parasitic, lack locomotor appendages and as a result move by minute contractions of small contractile fibrils. This motion was previously accredited to the organisms sliding on a mucus secretion.

Parasites: sporozoans (apicomplexa) can live in almost any animal (including human beings); they can even live inside other apicomplexa. 

Most protists cannot move

So, where do algae fit? Algae = seaweed. Alga is Latin for seaweed

Huge disagreement. No definition universally accepted. Polyphyletic: no common ancestor. Photosynthetic (so they have organelles) and so eukaryocytes. But can be unicellular or multicellular. Having said that, apparently the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) -- prokaryotes -- photosynthesize, and are considered algae by some (hence the name). My hunch: over time: blue-green algae, being prokaryotes will be placed among the Monera (bacteria or archaea) but due to history will retain the common name, blue-green algae for a long time; only when cyanobacteria becomes standard/common usage (and that may never happen) will  blue-green algae be understodd by all to be bacteria (cyanocbacteria).

But this is the problem with trying to classify algae/cyanobacteria with Bacteria: Algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from cyanobacteria that produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria.

The study of marine and freshwater algae is called either phycology or algology. Phycology comes from Greek fukos or phykos which is associated with paint or dye. Ancient Egyptians used cosmetic eye-shadow derived from seaweed (any color: black, red, green).

Algae are further divided into three separate supergoups; another grouping is based on
plastids.

Thursday, December 15, 2016

Spain In Our Hearts: Americans in the Spanish Civil War, 1936 - 1939; Adam Hochschild

Spain In Our Hearts: Americans in the Spanish Civil War, 1936 - 1939
Adam Hochschild
April, 2016

Mid-1936 to early 1939 -- how the press can "build a story"
NYT -- more headlines than:
  • FDR
  • Great Depression
  • rise of Nazi Germany
 ***************************

The Americans

p. 3 - 4: Robert Merriman, west coast, Californian moved to Nevada
  • straight-shooter; athlete
  • ROTC, UC Berkeley economy major
  • Marion Stone, in Russia, reading Pravda, p. 46
p. 13: Louis Fischer --Philadelphia slums
  • journalist, crossed over to activist
  • wrote for The Nation
p. 19: Milly Bennett -- San Francisco
  • teams up with the Merrimans (Robert and Marion Stone)
  • journalist
p. 41: Lois (19 y/o) and Charles Orr -- Kentucky
  • Orr - university economics professor
  • studying global economy
  • Europe; planned next to go to India
  • while in Germany / France intrigued with Spain
***********************************
Importance of names

The Republic: democratically elected government but Popular Front wins parliament
  • Republicans: liberals, socialists, communists
  • but "Republicans" because elected to "Republic" -- a democratic govt
Military rebels: self-named the Nationalist
  • military generals -- concerned that the Popular Front is the Spanish version (or will become the Spanish version) of the Russian revolution
  • far-right fascists -- much strong connotations than generally used in English (I have to re-read that; I don't understand that note now)
The other problem: Nationalists -- military generals -- extreme atrocities.

************************************

The reason the Spanish Civil war is so hard to understand:
1) I did not understand European situation in the 1930s
2) the names of the adversaries were confusing
The author got it exactly right, p. 41: "The conflict in Spain, remarkably, was at the same time, both a right-wing military coup and a left-wing social revolution."

p. 47: Stalin / Russia -- anxiety, concern about helping the Republic. The Spanish Civil War was probably confusing to Stalin / Russia, also.

p. 48 - 49: The Non-Intervention Committee in London, a sham

England pre-occupied with shocking romance between King Edward VIII and svelt American socialite Wallis Simpson

Franco: lower-ranking general
  • great planner
  • opportuniistic
  • when higher ranking generals killed, he took lead -- waited until he saw whether revolution would have chance to succeed
No country willing to help Republic except Stalin/Russia.

Franco: Hitler / Mussolini competed to provide most support
  • Mussolini: took Ethiopia -- wanted to enlarge circle of influence
p. 47: quick, nice summary of Stalin's concerns, anxiety (see above.

Hitler: saw advantages
  • training for war
  • U-boat base on Atlantic Coast
  • Spain: crucial source of raw materials -- copper, iron ore, sulfur, etc.
Stalin saw all of this; he waited in vain for Britain or France to aid the Republic; never happended -- p. 49

Finally Russia sends aid

****************************

1931: unrest forced the king to flee elected government. Monarchy ends and strong military ends.

February, 1936: Popular Front wins election.
  • liberals, Socialists, communists
  • Army generals displaced
  • many Army generals move to Morocco; known as the Nationalists

July 17, 1936: revolution begins; Army officers in Spanish Moroccoa -- Melilla --

************************
Chapter 4

The revolution started in Spanish Morocco -- quickly spread to south and west Spain.

Three areas where Republic held -- the three large cities:
  • Barcelona -- Catalonia
  • Madrid
  • Valencia

Fischer: already in Spain covering the war for The Nation

Sept 15, 1936: the Orrs -- enter the most revolutionary part of Spain -- Barcelona / Catalonia -- p. 50

NANA: North American Newspaper Alliance

***********************************
Prologue

Starts with John Gates and George Watts 
  • swimming in the Ebro
  • survive
Among the 2,800 Americans
  • picked up by two war correspondents
  • Herbert L. Matthews, NYT
  • Ernest Hemingway, NANA
750 died / 2,800 volunteered
highest death rate for US soldiers in any 20th century war

Mid-1936 to early 1939 -- how the press can "build a story"
NYT -- more headlines than:
  • FDR
  • Great Depression
  • rise of Nazi Germany
American volunteers: informally called Abraham Lincoln Brigade

Hemingway's FWTBT -- published the year after Franco's victory.

Many survivors continued to protest US government later
civil rights
Vietnam

Many Abe Lincoln "soldiers": communists
author tries to explain it -- unsuccessfully -- page xix

A "memoir" of sorts -- of Americans involved in the war plus three Englishmen

Prologue ends with "the banks of the Ebro River."

Importance of Ebro River: last battles -- Republicans slaughtered / lost the war.

HEMINGWAY was at that important battle. Practically drains the entire Iberian peninsula; runs northwest to southeast, into the Mediterranean.
From wiki: The Battle of the Ebro (Spanish: Batalla del Ebro, Catalan: Batalla de l'Ebre) was the longest and largest battle of the Spanish Civil War. It took place between July and November 1938, with fighting mainly concentrated in two areas on the lower course of the Ebro River, the Terra Alta comarca of Catalonia, and the Auts area close to Fayón (Faió) in the lower Matarranya, Eastern Lower Aragon. These sparsely populated areas saw the largest array of armies in the war. The results of the battle were disastrous for the Second Spanish Republic, with tens of thousands of dead and wounded and little effect on the advance of the Nationalists. 
******************************
Chapter 1: The Roots / Merrimans to Moscow

Story starts -- continued elsewhere.

Monday, December 5, 2016

Cistercian Abbeys: History And Architecture, Henri Gaud And Jean-Francois Leroux-Dhuys

Cistercian Abbeys: History and Architecture
Photography by Henri Gaud
Text by Jean-Francois Leroux-Dhuys
c. 1998 for the English edition

One of my most treasured books; a coffee-table book.

If anyone wonders from whence the great cathedrals sprang, look no further than the Cistercian abbeys. These were built "several decades" before the great catherdrals were built.

I was fortunate to have visited the ruins of several abbeys in England between 1986 and 1989 and then again between 2002 and 2004.

History:
  • 1000 AD: true fear that the world would end at the end of the millenium
  • 1050 AD: the fear that the world would end dissipated; Christian West came into its own; feudalism was establishing itself on the ruins of the Carolingian era; strengthened by the Gregorian reform that was to prove to be the most characteristic feature of the eleventh century, the Church demanded independence and purity, encouraging the development of the monastic orders
  • broad brush
  • Benedictine Robert of Molesme, in his search for ever greater perfection after a number of previous experiments, founded the new monastery of Citeaux in 1098
  • his successors Alberic and, in particular, Stephen Harding created, the conditions necessary for the development of the Cistercian Order
  • this was a rigorous Order that demanded renunciation of the world and an asceticism that attracted the chivalrous nobility; for these men, this was an adventure comparable to setting out on a Crusade
  • under Bernard of Clairvaux: until the 1150s, the White Monks set up a network of communities over the entire face of Europe, created in the image of the heavenly Jerusalem;
  • this initial stimulus lasted for a century
  • 12th century: the high point of medieval monasticism
  • founding Rule of St Benedict; their role in economic growth contributed to the development of towns in the 13th century
  • the "Desert Fathers" (early Christian hermits) were replaced by new Orders, Dominicans and Fransciscans, whose growth coincided with that of the towns
Part I
Nine Centuries Ago

Introduction
  • Molesme: 1075 -- marks the beginning of the Cistercian adventure
  • Citeaux: 1098
  • western civilization had reached a low point; moral chaos
  • Christianity drew the "red line" beyond which civilization would not fall
  • for two centuries, 1050 - 1250, Christianity experienced a period of expansion; Cistercians played a major role
Chapter 1: The Origins of Christianity
  • Constantine the Great, 272 - 337: converted at age 40; created the unexpected alliance between Christianity and the Roman Empire; Council of Nicaea, 325 -- the Trinity
  • first Roman emperor to stop Christian persecutions; legalized Christianity along with other religions and cults
  • established an eastern capital at Byzantium
  • first to third centuries: a specifically Christian monasticism developed
  • as religious peace became established, the first monks appeared; when religious persecution came to an end, martyrdom was no longer the sole route to sainthood
  • most interesting: "official recognition of Christianity had brought about a relaxation in morality. New witnesses were needed and these were the monks, who offered their lives of self-mortification to God 
  • Pax Romana: assimilated Celtic culture and the new Christian religion; this became the inheritance received by the West afer the Roman and Byzantine empires went their separate ways
  • walled towns::cathedral enclosures; these cathedrals prefigured the enclosed space of the monasteries
  • invaders occupied Rome (476) but people remained Roman and Christian (for the most part)
  • Benedict of Nursia (northeast of Rome) founds the abbey of Mont Cassino (529); draws up "the Rule"
  • Charlemagne takes control of the Empire and the Church: 817; without equal on earth
  • Benedict of Aniane ("the second Benedictine") brings together all monasteries under the one Benedictine Rule (also, 817); 
  • 910: foundation of the Benedictine Order
Chapter II: Christianity in the Late Eleventh Century
  • 1000: western Europe depression; superstitious about fin de siecle, end of the world
  • 1050: things began to settle down
  • Otto, 962: reestablished the Germanic Holy Roman Empire -- but only possible with help of bishops (why bishops are next to king/queen in chess)
  • from wiki: chess reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century; by the year 1000 it had spread across Europe; originally "an elephant", the modern bishop first appeared shortly after 1200 in Courier chess; the term "bishop" did not enter into the English language until the 16th century; Icelandic 12th-century Lewis Chessmen portray the bishop as an unambiguously ecclesiastical figure
  • bellatores (warriors); laboratores (workers); and, oratores (men of prayer)
  • the situation of monasticism (page 19): fascinated feudal lords
  • from 910, due to the directives of Benedict of Aniane, the spirit of Cluny (central-east France Saone-et-Loire), the Cluniac Order revived; biggest church in the world at the time; controlled 1200 priories across Europe (theoretically) but growing more autonomous
  • a return to the spirit of the hermit, the Desert Fathers (page 20)
Chapter III: From Molesme to Citeaux, 1075 - 1119
  • Molesme: 1075 - 1090; directly north of Cluny, southeast of Paris, southwest of Luxembourg
  • founder of Molesme: Robert
  • reverted to becoming a hermit; gathered his friends, founded a new abbey at Molesme
  • Benedictine monastery for 15 years; rigorous asceticism; monks rediscovered the virtue of manual work
  • Molesme became wealthy through feudal donations; mother abbey of a Benedictine congregation of 35 priories; an identity crisis
  • Citeaux (1090 - 1098)
  • Alberic and Stephen Harding: at Molesme; wanted things even more strict
  • they leave Molesme and found an abbey at Citeaux; in the same general region of eastern France
  • feud between Robert (Molseme) and Alberic (New Monastery, Citeaux)
  • Alberic's goal: make the New Monastery an exemplary Benedictine abbey, with strict observance of the Benedictine Rule
  • first mention of the "Cistercian monks who came from Molesme" -- Cistercium is the Latinname of Citeaux, near Dijon in France
  • 1100: the pope places the New Monastery under personal protection; the new monastery much stricter than Robert's Molesme
  • Odo 1, the duke of Burgundy (who will feature in the Normandy invasion of England) donated land to the Cistercians
  • Stephen Harding and the Carta Caritatis (1109 - 1119); two important events marked the beginning of the abbacy of Stephen Harding: a) okay to accept donations and farmlands; and, b) shaped the spiritual and political future of the Cistercian world through the arrival of a novice, 1113 -- Bernard of Fontaine; Bernard's group invigorated the new Cistercian order
  • Harding, all of a sudden, had a huge population to manage, and was concerned about the Bernard "clan"
  • the first four daughters: La Ferte; Pontigny; Clairvaux (assigned to Bernard), and Morimond
  • Stephen Harding: to ensure a return to strict rule of Benedict -- the Carta Caritatis -- the Charter of Divine Love
  • December 23, 1119 -- the Charter given to the Pope who accepted it and the term "New Monastery" no longer used; new name, the Order of Citeaux has been born -- the Cistercians -- very strict Benedictines
  • the constitution, page 28: set rules for monasteries; a model of organization
  • federal (central) vs state (independence)
  • what was ahead of its time was the Order's supra-nationality
  • the widespread renown of Bernard of Clairvaux of major importance -- the Bernard "clan"
  • copying books -- illuminated manuscripts -- of major importance

Chapter IV: Bernard of Clairvaux, 1120 - 1153 
  • 1119, Carta Caritatis -- ten monasteries; by the time Bernard of Clairvaux died in 1153, some thirty years later, it embraced 351 abbeys of which half were outside France and 169 attached to Clairvaux alone
  • Cistercians: their political power was immense; principally through Bernard of Clairvaux; he even eclipsed the mother-ship, the abbot of Citreaux
  • Bernard:
  • personal charisma
  • defense of the poor
  • the cult of the Virgin Mary: took a page out of the troubadours' book; placed love at the heart of his mystical theology; sublimated it into devotion to the Virgin, queen of Heaven
  • the schism of Anacletus, between 1130 and 1137 mobilized Bernard of Clairvaux
  • kings and princes gave the abbot of Clairvaux the task of naming the legitimate pope
  • Bernard chose Innocent II over Anacletus II
  • Second Crusade: 1146 - 1151
Chapter V: Monastic Architecture According to Bernard of Clairvaux
  • in truth, Cistercian architecture owes everything to him
  • St Bernard canonized 1174; took a long time; occurred one year later than canonization of Thomas a Becket in 1173
  • amazing expansion of the Cistercian Order expressed itself in the appearance of hundreds of building sites
  • the Order's first great building campaing was opened by Bernard of Clairvaux, in 1135; Clairvaux II; even Citeaux had to wait until 1140 -- forty years after its foundation, before work started on its abbey church
  • the Ur-Cistercian churches: Fontenay in Burgundy; Poblet in Catalonia; Maulbronn in Germany; and, Fountains in England
  • Cistercian builders: 750 abbeys, and much more
  • the difference between asceticism and poverty (page 39)
  • the Cistercian architecture (page 39)
  • no sculptures; no paintings except on crosses, which must be of wood
And this is where I will end. This is an incredible book. This takes me only through page 39 and there are almost 400 pages in this book.

Wednesday, November 16, 2016

The Hero Of The Empire, Winston Churchill, Candice Millard, c. 2016

The Hero of the Empire: The Boer War, a Daring Escape, and the Making of Winston Churchill
Candice Millard
c. 2016
DDS: 968MIL


One can pretty much get the overview of the book by reading the captions of the pictures in the middle of the book. To wit:

  • Born in Blenheim Palace, a lavish Oxfordshire manor built in the early 18th century for John Churchill, the 1st Duke of Marlborough; the latter Winston’s inspiration for success.
  • Born into the highest ranks of British aristocracy …
  • Churchill’s American mother, born Jennie Jerome …
  • Churchill’s mother becomes a widow at age 45; marries a young aristocrat only two years older than Winston….
  • On his trip as a journalist to South Africa, he carried a pencil sketch of Pamela Plowden, the first great love of his life …
  • October 9, 1899, Paul Kruger, president of the Transvaal, told the Brits to leave; the Brits did not; Kruger knew war would break out …
  • Soon after war was declared, Sir Redvers Buller was named commander in chief of Her Majesty’s army in South Africa; nicknamed the Steamroller; Brits thought he would end/win the war quickly …
  • Boers’ Louis Bother, youngest Boer commander, left the Brits reeling …
  • Boers well known for harsh treatment of native Africans and Indians; among the most effective advocates for these people were Solomon Plaatje who would become the first secretary of the African National Congress; and, Mohandas Gandhi, who led a team of stretcher-bearers on some of the most blood-soaked battlefields of the war …
  • Churchill arrives in South Africa just two days after war was declared; a journalist; wanted to be involved — this would be 1899 … [July 8, 1918 — Ernest Hemingway injured in Italy as a reporter in WWI] …
  • Close friend Aylmer Haldane invited him along on an armored train on a reconnaissance mission .. one of the most dangerous missions in the war ….
  • November 15, 1899, just a month after Churchill arrived in South Africa, Botha led a devastating attack on the armored train; Haldane and Churchill on board; train derailed; sixty Brits, including Churchill, captured …

  • POW Churchill arrives in Pretoria, the Boer capital …he had great respect for his enemy on the battlefield, but glaring disrespect for average Boer coming out to look at him …
  • Churchill was imprisoned with about a 100 British officers in the Staats Model School …
  • Churchill turned for help to Louis de Souza, the Transvaal secretary of state for war. Souza could not give Churchill freedom, though he befriended him in other ways …
  • He escapes, leaving behind a maddeningly arrogant note, addressed directly to Souza …
  • After striking out on his own, attempting to cross hundreds of miles of enemy territory without a map, a compass, weapon or food, Churchill stumbled upon the Transvaal and Delagoa Bay Colliery; taking a wild chance that he might find help, he forced himself to come out of hiding, …
  • By an incredible stroke of luck, Churchill knocked on the door of John Howard, the mine’s manager and one of the few Englishmen who had been allowed to remain in the Transvaal during the war; when Howard agreed to help him, Churchill would later write, “I felt like a drowning man pulled out of the water.”
  • After hiding Churchill in a rat-infested coal mine shaft, Howard finally found a way to secret him out of the country — burrowed deep inside the wool trucks of the mine’s storekeeper, Charles Burnham. Burnham not only agreed to let Churchill hid in his trucks, he rode with him all the way to Portuguese East Africa, bribing guards and inspectors along the way …
  • When Churchill finally arrived in Lorenco, Marques, the capital of Portuguese East Africa, he quickly made his way to the British consulate. Everyone was looking for him; the consulate did not recognize him; told him to go away…
  • As soon has escape was known, he became a national hero, greeted in Durban, the largest city in British-held Natal, by cheering throngs;
  • After delivering his speech in Durban, he returned to the exact location where the train had been attacked, derailed, and he escaped .. he spent Christmas Eve in a tent on the same railway cutting where he had been forced to surrender …
  • He saw the reward poster — upset that the “Dead or Alive” award was so low …
  • After he was free, he convinced Buller to give him a commission in the South African Light Horse, though it was against Brit rules for a journalist to become a soldier and vice versa; he was allowed both; paid by the newspaper but not paid by the military; he took part in several pivotal battles before returning to Pretoria, where he and his cousin, the 9th Duke of Marlborough, freed the jubilant men who had so recently been Churchill’s fellow prisoners…
  • Just six months after his escape, Churchill ran for Parliament for the second time. This time, to no one’s surprise, least of all his own, he won; owed it all to the South African War.

Thursday, November 3, 2016

Dante's Inferno; Robert Hollander And Jean Hollander, c. 2000

The Inferno
Dante
Translated by Jean Hollander; comments and editing by Robert Hollander & Jean Hollander's 
c. 2000
DDS: 851.1 DAN


The Princeton Dante Project.

From the introduction, page xvii, Robert Hollander & Jean Hollander's verse translation of Dante's The Inferno, c. 2000, DDS 851.1 DAN:

Dante seems completely aware of the radical newness of a lady loaded with such lofty theological meaning in the tradition of vernacular poetry of love
From wiki:
In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Venus (Aphrodite)
His father was a first cousin of King Priam of Troy (both being grandsons of Ilus, founder of Troy), making Aeneas a second cousin to Priam's children (such as Hector and Paris).
He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad.
Aeneas receives full treatment in Roman mythology, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid where he is an ancestor of Romulus and Remus. He became the first true hero of Rome

Introduction:
17 pages; very, very good; lays out the story, background, etc
I will come back to this again

Inferno I
begins his story, "midway in the journey of our life" -- he found himself in a dark wood; he was lost. The nature of the wood has terrified him. He is so terrified, death is not much worse.
Does not know how he got to this state.
But then looked up a hill; saw a light; and, no longer afraid.
Turned to look back; noted no mortal being yet alive in the pass he had just traversed.

As he was climbing, met in succession, a leopard, a lion, and then a she-wolf.

In response, he turned and fled to a lower place.

Runs into a stranger, who says his parents were from Lombardy; Mantua was their homeland. Manuta is the capital of Lombardy, a province in the far north - central area of Italy (the Alps?).

He, the stranger, says he was born sub Julio (I assume under Julius Caesar), though late in his time; lived in Rome, under "good" Augustus, in an age of false and lying gods.

Augustus founded the Roman Empire; he was the adopted son of Julius Caesar.

The stranger says he was a poet. As a poet, he told (sung) the story of Anchises (father of Aeneas and a member of the royal family of Troy).

The stranger asks Dante why he is fleeing to a lower place, from the peak that gives delight, origin and the cause of every joy.

Aha! Dante asks the stranger, "Are you Virgil?" Wow!

Virgil: 70 - 19 BC. (Dante Aligheri: late Middle Ages, 1300 AD).

Dante tells Virgil that Virgil is his only teacher, only author.

Virgil tells Dante he must take a different path. The leopard, lion, she-wolf (may have been one, changelings) -- no one can defeat it except a hound that will come later. The hound will be the salvation of low-lying Italy, for which maiden Camilla, Euryalus, Turnus, and Nisus died of their wounds. -- line 106 - 108.

The hound will hunt the beast until the beast is sent back to Hell (whence primal envy set her loose).

Virgil says he will be Dante's guide to that other path, which will lead Dante from "here" to an eternal place where you shall hear despairing cries and see those ancient souls in pain as they bewail their second death.

Then you will see the ones who are content to burn because they hope to come among the blessed (think of the Urnfield culture).

Virgil says that at that point he will depart Dante but leave him with another guide, a "her." He, Virgil, can not go to the top of the mountain because Virgil was a rebel to that Emperor. Dante says he wants Virgil (and then the new guide) to take him to Saint Peter's gate. 

They then set out.

Then a 9-page discussion follows.

No more notes here. I will follow this in my private notes.


Tuesday, November 1, 2016

Rise Of The Rocket Girls, Nathalia Holt, c. 2016

Rise of the Rocket Girls: The Women Who Propelled US, From Missiles to the Moon to Mars.
Nathalia Holt
DD: 629.1 HOL

Preface.
The story of "the human computers" at the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, CA. 

January 1958: Launch Day


Part I: 1940s
The women
  • Barby Canright
  • Macie Roberts
  • Barbara Lewis (later Paulson)
Part II: 1950s
The women
  • Barbara Lewis (later Paulson)  
  • Janez Lawson 
  • Helen Yee Chow (later Ling)
  • Susan Finley
Part III: 1960s
The women
  • Barbara Paulson
  • Helen Ling
  • Susan Finley
  • Sylvia Lundy (later Miller)
Part IV: 1970s - Today
The women
  • Barbara Paulson
  • Helen Ling
  • Susan Finley
  • Sylvia Miller
Epilogue -- the group below traveled to JPL for a "reunion" of sorts
  • Barbara Paulson
  • Joanie Jordan
  • Kathryn Thuleen
  • Georgia Dvornychenko
  • Virginia Anderson
  • Janet Davis
  • Helen Ling
  • taught her son BASIC and FORTRAN
  • Sue Finley
  • still working on DSN
  • NASA's longest-serving woman
  • Sylvia Miller
  • Victoria Wang
  • Margie Brunn
  • Caroline Norman
  • Lydia Shen
  • Linda Lee
  • Marie Crowley
  • Nancy Key
  • Sylvia Lundy (later Miller) 

Notes
  • the book is based mostly on first-person interviews conducted by the author, 2011 - 2015
  • where possible, events reported confirmed by archival material
Chapter 1: Launch Day
  • Begins in 1939
  • Suicide Squad: began with three young men. Out of Pasadena; tinkering with homemade rockets, while one or two were students at Caltech. Worked in the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory.
  • Barby, incredibly bright, fitting in classes at Occidental College.
  • 1939: National Academy of Sciences awards a grant to the Suicide Squad, now known as the GALCIT (Guggenhiem Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology).
  • first year: $1,000
  • second year: $10,000
  • US government's first investment in rocket research
  • in deference to Army Air Corps, they changed their name to Air Corps Jet Propulsion Research Project
  • the group approached Richard and Barby Canright about being the mathematicians for the group
  • the group needed a place to work: Arroyo Seco -- a few miles outside Pasadena (1936)
  • avoided the word "rocket"
  • August, 1941
  • JATO: jet-assisted-take-off -- six little rockets on a prop plane
  • four months later a rocket-powered plane would be needed
  • as I read that I had the feeling this was as important as what the Wright Bros did at Kitty Hawk
  • December, 1941
  • Barby: thousands of computations -- thrust-to-weight calculations
  • it took just a year for the JPL rockets to boost the Doublas A-20A bomber into the air
  • Frank and von Karman set up a company: Aerojet
  • started experimenting with torpedoes but could not use that word; only the US Navy allowed to use that word
  • von Karman leaves in 1944 to launch the air force's Scientific Advisory Group
  • Frank took over
  • JATO tests in Muro, CA -- now Edwards AFB
  • the computers: four women and one man; their prized possession -- one Friden calculator
  • up to that time, only the slide ruler
  • rocket science and now they knew they had to concentrate on propellants
  • propellant (not fuel): fuel + oxidizer (an element that is able to accept an electron, like oxygen)
  • because there is no oxygen in space, rockets have to carry their own oxidizer
  • the calculation the engineers and computers most interested in: specific impulse -- the change in force that accumulates as a rocket uses fuel; specific impulse indicates roughly how much momentum builds up as the propellant is thrown out the back of the rocket; this calculation is the simplest way to compare the effectiveness of different propellants
  • Barbie and Macie (page 33)
  • Macie promoted as top computer; because of her, all future computers would be female
  • Pasadena Junior College
Chapter 2: Headed West
  • Helen Yee Ling Chow: Hawaiian teen-ager; Pearl Harbor; full scholarship, Univ of Notre Dame; only female to major in mathematics; her brother worked at JPL; learns about computers, knows that it would be a perfect fit for her sister
  • Barbara Lewis; another girl interested in math; Ohio; her mother goes out to CA at her request; felt at ease when interviewed by Macie
  • Susan Greene (m. Pete Finley), southern Californian; 5 years old in 1941; hired as a computer at Convair; was programming but that word was not used; commute was awful; thought of JPL just five minutes from home; married, pregnant, first baby died at two days of age

Part II

1950s

Barbara Lewis (later Paulson)
Janez Lawson
Helen Yee Chow (later Ling)
Susan Finley

Chapter 3: Rockets Rising

1955: JPL, after 10 years, sending the Corporal missile from JPL area to the White Sands Proving Ground in southern New Mexico, just 60 miles north of Mexican border.

Corporal: project had begun in the lat 1940s; a guided-missile system; unlike anything JPL had attempted; Army wanted this; Barbara's first project at JPL

First Corporal rocket, October, 1945, edge of space; the highest a rocket had ever flown; known as the WAC Corporal; WAC: without altitude control since it had no guidance system, and also for Women's Army Corps since it was smaller than other missiles given military-sounding names


Using very dangerous liquid propellants

Liquid propellants let to engines shaking, exploding, unpredictable

Barbara was 19 years old at the time

Thrust provided by mixture of aniline and nitric acid; Barbara did all the calculations; it took a full day of calculating for one trajectory

These were hypergolic propellants: a combination of fuel and oxidant that would ignite on contact; same propellant class that launched Apollo

The little sister, WAC Corporal was particularly interesting to Barbara because it was being launched as a two-stage rocket; the slim American rocket would sit atop the Nazi V-2; the V-2 could target a city more than 200 miles away

The idea of combining the power of the V-2 with the high-flying WAC Corporal was ingenious; the combination, they called the Bumper WAC

Pencil, paper, slide rule and Friden calculator; the Friden could not calculate logarithms (wow) so she had to manually use a text

While they worked out the little sister, Corporal was launched, spring, 1947; first test of a large missile; considered first all-American; everyone was surprised when it soared to 129,000 feet before reaching its target 60 miles away

A description of the sex-crazed male engineers

A description of the all-women computers hired / led by Macie

January, 1949: needed to find new testing location; missiles falling into Mexico

Cocoa Beach, FL; the range eventually became part of the Space Coast; rural Brevard County

Close to the equator, rockets got a boost from the rotational speed of Earth; more powerful at equator than anywhere else;

January, 1949: little sister -- reached 242 miles above Earth; greatest velocity and highest altitude any man-made object had ever achieved

Page 73: Operation Paperclip mentioned

1955: US deported a Chinese engineer working at JPL; he was one of the founders of JPL; spying never substantiated; became the Father of Chinese Rocketry

Foreshadowing: Frank, founder of JPL will have to watch from afar (not sure what that last paragraph is saying; Barbara Lewis will become a beauty queen

Chapter 4: Miss Guided Missile

JPL's Miss Guided Missile Contest
between 1950 and 1953, JPL budget, from $5 million to $11 million

Macie looking for as many qualified women as she could find

Janez Lawson: chemical engineering, UCLA; most popular girl in her class but also the lone girl in many of her classes (chemistry and math)

Macie's ad: did not require advanced experience or degrees: Janez saw this as code for a position open to women; this would be a secret back door to getting a job as an engineer, at the time closed to women

How interesting: late in the story we learn she was African-American -- a huge obstacle. Her father had been the first African-American city council member of Santa Monica

New contractor to manufacture and test the rockets: Firestone Tire and Rubber Company

Quality control a huge problem

JPL continued to work on Corporal, but now moving on to Sergeant: more sophisticated guidance system

The Sergeant: the solution seems to rest in a forgotten WW II engineering marvel, page 84







Monday, October 31, 2016

Roanoke Island: Solving The Mystery Of The Lost Colony Roanoke, Lee Miller, c. 2000

Solving The Mystery of the Lost Colony Roanake
Lee Miller
c. 2000

I have this book in storage. I assume I have read it but I don't recall it. I found it again in the library. I am ready to read it again.

Preface
  • three mysteries in one
  • evidence indicates that the truth about the colonists' fate was known, although misleading statements were passed off in its place
  • the story as it is generally told:
    • Sir Walter Raleigh obtained a royal patent from Queen Elizabeth I for rights to settle North America
    • spring of 1584: SWR launches an exploratory expedition; discover Roanake Island; return that autumn
    • 1585: military expedition financed by SWR; a fort is built; soldiers remain there until spring of 1586
    • 1587: SWR sends a colony of men, women, and children to Chesapeake Bay; to visit Roanoke Island in passing
    • governor: John White
    • for some reason, John White lands at Roanoke Island and remains; does not go to Chesapeake Bay as instructed; colony move into the abandoned fort
    • short of supplies, Governor John White returns to England with the transport ships
    • his return coincides with the coming of the Spanish Armada
    • due to that war, Governor John White unable to relieve the colonists until 1590
    • when he does return; the colonists have vanished
    • conclusion: colonists murdered by the Powhatan Indians of Virginia
  • loss of 116 people
  • the author doesn't believe the story as told
  • the story of the Lost Colony is America's oldest mystery story
  • the single most important question according to the author: why were the colonists left at Roanoke Island? It will be interesting to see why that is so important a question: the fort was already there; the colonists were exhausted after the long trip; would Chesapeake be any better?
A side note: this was all happening during the height of Shakespeare's theater career; the real Shakespeare (Sir Henry Neville) was investing, and may have invested in this adventure.

A side note: it would be interesting to see Nathaniel Philbrick weigh in on this mystery.

Roanoke Island: a wisp of an island; too remote for us to have visited when we lived on Langley AFB, Hampton Roads, Virginia (to the north) or many years later when we lived in Summerville/Charleston, South Caroline (to the south).

The island is off the coast of North Carolina. It is near the North Carolina - Virginia state line.

There is an incredibly long natural sea barrier to the east of Roanoke Island: Croatoan Peninsula.

The nearest bay -- a huge bay -- to Roanoke Island is fed by the Chowan River which has headwaters in Virginia, all the way up to the land of the Powahatan, on west side of the bay from Jamestown, Virginia. 

Part One: A Case of Missing Persons

Chapter 1: The Disappearance
  • July 1587: the chapter opens with 117 people. 116 people are lost according to the preface. I assume the missing person was Governor John White
  • first English colonists in America
  • according to the author, John White was well-versed in this part of America, and knew the colonists could not have survived on Roanoke Island (but he was going to return with supplies, wasn't he? and then move on up to Chesapeake Bay?)
  • first English child born in America: Virginia Dane to John White's daughter Eleanor and her husband
  • Ananias Dane
  • that was 1587; due to English war with Spain (Spanish Armada), John White did not return until 1590, three years later
  • autumn of 1590: John White lets SWR know about the lost colonists
  • 1593: John White composes letter to geographer and historian Richard Hakluyt with his side of the story; appears to be a farewell letter; after the letter, John White vanishes
  • 1600: the letter is finally published, seven years after it was written; ten years after SWR knew
Then the letter than John White wrote in 1593 about events starting in 1590 when he returned to Roanoke Island (page 5)
three ships and two little shallops which sink; replaced en route; the three ships:
  • Hopewell, flagship, Captain Abraham Cocke
  • Little John, Captain Christopher Newport
  • John Evangelist, the consort (a ship of any size that accompanies another vessel)
  • "chartered" by Master John Watts, known by the Spaniards as the greatest pirate on the high seas
  • John White is frantic; in 1588, the Spaniards came close to locating Brits (the Roanoke Colony) but never found them; White knows it's a race between John Watts pirate ships and the Spaniards, but the British pirates are in no hurry to leave the Caribbean, plundering
  • the Spaniards getting closer to learning about Roanoke; now the hurricane season 
Finally, up to North Carolina, first the southern banks, then the NE end of Croatan Island (August 10, 1590)
  • August 15, 1590: reach Hatorask Island (Hatteras); ahead lies Port Ferdinando; a break in the barrier island chain; through the break, in the distance, John White glimpses Roanoke Island; [Kitty Hawk in this very area; on Croatan barrier island, just a bit northeast of Roanoke Island]; his daughter Virginia wold be 3 years old; but John White was 3 years later in returning; a ship overturns; drownings; pirates don't want to try to get to Roanoke again; 
  • August 18, 1590: finally reach Roanoke -- nothing (p. 12)
  • White finds CRO carved into a tree (White had told colonists to use this cryptic ticker)
  • CRO but no sign of the maltese cross: his symbol for distress; no indication of distress at time CRO was carved
  • then sees CROATAN carved on a tree
  • finds his buried chest; but nothing more
  • pirates don't dare try to land at Croatan
  • White convinces one ship, the Hopewell, to winter over at Trinidad, and then next summer return to Croatan before returning to England (pirates probably figure a winter of plunder)
  • August 28, 1590: hurricane
  • White loses; Hopewell heads home; arrives at Azores
that was the letter; John White says that was his fifth and last voyage to America; and then disappears; letter dated February 4, 1593 (three years after his return) -- p. 18 

Other:

John Watts.

In Volume 2  of Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Q. Elizabeth and K. James I, two letters next to each other:
  • the first letter, dated August 13, 1605, from The Lords of the Privy Council to Mr Winwood, written on behalf of Sir John Watts, Alderman of the city of London, with regard to some "suit." 
  • the next letter, dated August 19, 1604, is from Sir Henry Neville to Mr Winwood, in which the treaties between France and Scotland have apparently just been signed is note by Sir Henry Neville.
Shakespeare lodged at Mountjoy from 1602 - 1604, and then near the end of his life, left London in 1611.

The Tempest – his last substantial play, 1610 or 1611.

References the famous shipwreck of the Sea-Venture, 1609, on way to Jamestown (second London Virginia Company) – wrecked on Bermuda – manuscript event circulated among the council (Neville was a member) but it was not published for general/wide release until 1625.

Chapter 2: A Case of Missing Persons
  • the author wonders if some crime has been/had been committed which was the reason Governor John White hastily left his colony --
Chapter 3: John White, Governor
  • the author will now explore the background of John White
  • nothing is known about John White: that alone is very, very weird -- he was the governor and nothing is known about him
John White: artist
  • first Roanoke expedition as an artist: 1584
  • second Roanoke expedition to accompany 15 soldiers to set up camp; again, as an artist: 1585
  • third Roanoke expedition: 1857; this time as Governor of the City of Raleigh in Virginia (not Roanoke, note); when they arrive, find dead soldier, George Howe (Secotan arrow); Mateo, a native to Croatoan Island accompanies the third voyage, back to his home; three ships: Ferdinando/Fernandez, master of "our Admiral (page 64), the Lion; a pinnace (Captain Edward Stafford); and, a flyboat (Captain Edward Spicer), captained by Captain Spicer; the flyboat and Spicer abandoned in the Bay of Portugal but later makes it to Roanoke (August 25 -- page 73); White and colonists had arrived at Roanoke on July 22; first to Caribbean before up to Roanoke; first stop, Santa Cruz in the Virgin Islands, reached it June 22 after a month at see (page 64); see page 63 for boats, captains; August 22 decision to return to England; depart August 27 on the Lion and the flyboat (see pate 76); September: John White and Edward Spicer get back to Ireland; Hakluyt (page 78) historian reports that Roanoke is a tremendous success;
  • 1590: fourth expedition to Roanoke; to find out what happened to the colonists; Captain Edward Spicer on this voyage also, but will die on beach at Hatorask; death observed by John White
Part Two: A Case of Murder

Author argues there was murder or sabotage. Suspects:
  • John White himself
  • James  Lasie and John Wright; were on second voyage, 1585; fateful winter of 1585 - 1586; author rules these two out; John Wright later subscribed to the Jamestown venture some years later
  • Darby Glande (p. 62): unlikely
  • Denice Carrell (Irishman) and Darby Glande (aka Darbie Glaven; David Glavid): left behind in Puerto Rico; Carrell never heard of again; Glande ends up reporting to Puerto Rico governor de Valdes (p. 67): Glande tips off Valdes that English are on their way to Roanoke (Jacan); Glande had been captured twice; escaped; escape seems suspicious; set up by third party; author says Glande never returned to Roanoke, so is not the suspect
  • Alanson: a friend of the Lion's captain (Fernandez)
  • Fernandez: in the midst of everything; it looks like he sabotaged the colonists in 1587; it turns out that he was also the captain on the second voyage, the voyage in 1585 that took the military soldiers to Roanoake.
The author says we need to go back to the second voyage; back to 1585 - 1586 to find out more about that expedition and more about Fernandez. First thing I want to know is why is a Spanish-surnamed sailor in charge when the English and Spanish are at war (Spanish Armada, 1587; delayed White from returning to Roanoke for three years); what was Sir Walter Raleigh's involvement; what did he know; when did he know it?

 Chapter 10: the second Roanoke expedition: Grenville and the Secotan (1585) -- this is the expedition to set up a military outpost at Roanoke to thwart the Spanish
  • 1585
  • Manteo and Wanchese, SWR's Indian guests, brought over from the first Roanoke expedition in 1584, join in New Year's (1585) celebrations
  • Spain is gearing for war; they've taken the Low Countries (Netherlands)
  • Raleigh is knighted, January 6 (Twelfth Night) as a reward for annexing the land of Virginia for the Queen
  • Raleigh's plan is to thwart the Spanish by building a secret military base at Roanoke; Spain cannot fight England without a steady stream of gold from America
  • Money welds Spain together; disrupt its supply and Spain's military will grind to a halt
  • Again, the riches of the West Indies -- think Alexander Hamilton
  • Raleigh assembles 13 ships -- page 81; Raleigh is assigned the warship the Tigeri
  • Captain Ralph Lane is recalled to service from Kerry, Ireland; will play a role in the Lost Colony -- page 82
  • April 9, 1585: ships assembled at Plymouth; SWR's cousin Richard Grenville is the commanding officer; second-in-command, High Marshl, Thomas Cavendish; Ralph Lane ranks 3rd (Irish ferociousness), sails as Lieutenant; Vice-Admiral of the fleet is Captain Philip Amadas (from Plymouth) -- he led the first expedition to Roanoke in 1584; Simon Fernandez, Pilot Major, is third officer on the maritime side.
  • The specialists on board (1585, military expedition): John White, artist; Thomas Hariot, scientist and SWR's tutor; Joachim Ganz, a mineral man from Prague; and Manteo and Wanchese are returning home
Spanish embargo on English shipping, May 1585

Queen Elizabeth grants hundreds of letters allowing privateering (piracy).

English syndicates make money, hand over fist. Huge, huge windfall; plundering as pirates.

The big thing: sugar!

Raleigh's naval fleet underway; difficult beginning. Grenville and Ralph Lane have a falling out with each other. Grenville is both Admiral and General on this expedition. -- page 85

June 23: along the Carolina coast; having departed on/about May 23.

Page 86: the Tiger runs aground on the outer banks. From here on, all ensuing events evolve from this disaster. Lane is furious; he says Grenville blamed Fernandez. Stores destroyed by salt water; too late for planting season.

I just noticed: north half of Roanoke Island named Manteo; southern half of Roanoke Island named Wanchese -- wow.

Inland expedition; deep in Secotan territory.

Hariot scrutinizes corn, unknown in England -- page 92.

Military turns on Grenville; the fleet sets sail. Ralph Lane remains at Roanoke, along with 107 men, less than a third of the entire contingent.

Two men returning with Grenville have secret letters (from Ralph Lane, others) about how awful Grenville is. "Ralph Lane's actions, more than any link in the chain of events forged thus far, will directly seal the fate of the Lost Colonists." -- page 96. Lane's tenure on Roanoke was a downhill spiral ending in enormous tragedy. The author says that to discover what happened at Roanoke we must enter the world of a madman.

Chapter 11: The Second Roanoke Expedition: Lane's Command (1585 - 1586) -- so Ralph Lane is left behind in command of a small contingent of British army personnel on Roanoke.

Lane's Fort, July 29, 1585:

Lane has been told he will get no food/help from the Secotan. The Secotan tell him he can stay at Roanoke but he won't get any help. Lane is a fool. He is adamant about staying. It is obvious they will all starve.

August 17, 1585: the fort is completed; Lane assumes command -- he is Governor and General. Philip Amadas, an admiral will be second-in-command. Two other officers identified: Edward Stafford and John Vaughan.

Remember, Lane was from Ireland.

Granganimeo is the leader of the Indians at their palisaded town of Roanoke. His brother, Wingina, "King of the entire Secotan country" moved to Lane's Fort.

Lane assigns Amadas to get information on natives:
  • the Weapemeoc confederacy, led by Okisko, is comprised of four small nations: the Yeopim proper, the Perquiman, the Pasquotank, and the Poteskeet, allied to the Secotan
  • West of the Weapemeoc Confederacy: the Chowanoc, also a member of the alliance.
Drought.

Soldiers try to convert Indians; the Secotan are shocked, reeling. To convert would destroy their whole way of life.

Autumn, 1585: Secotan begin to die. English microbes start to wipe out the Secotan. Relations deteriorate.

Meanwhile: Grenville has returned home; great fanfare in London. Incredibly huge booty from America brought back in the ships.

But now Spain is preparing to invade England. England abandons Roanoke; too small to make a difference. Winter sets in at Roanoke. Things will not go well. Lane is unaware that he has been abandoned. Secotan "rich" with copper. Ultimately, Lane's obsession with copper will destroy the Lost Colonists.

Chapter 12: Chauni Temoatan and a Murder (1586)

Ralph Lane and military on Roanoke; not doing well
Amadas explores Weapemeoc country; returns
Hariot explores mainland farther in; likes it; Lane wants more information
explorers find evidence of natives able to use copper
White's map identifies name not seen before: Mangoak
Mangoak will be intimately associated with the Lost Colonists; we need to know more about them

Illness kills many Indians, including Wingina and Granganimeo; Wingina recovers; his brother does not; Wingina changes his name to Pemisapan

Lane blames Pemisapan for his problems with Menatonon on the Chowan River in Chowanoc -- it's a lie.

Pemisapan was closely allied with both the Weapemeoc and Chowanoc; could have defeated the Secotan.

Lane still wants to find the copper mines.

Lane has created problems for future colonists by what he did to the Secotan and other native Americans.

After 10 months at Roanoke, he finally departs when Drake drops off supplies.

Part Three: A Case Of Conspiracy

Chapter 13: The Lost Colonists (1587)

After Lane's hurried departure, Raleigh's long-awaited supply ship shows up; finds no men. Two weeks later, another ship under Grenville's commander arrives. Finds no one but leaves 15 soldies in charge of the fort at Roanoke.

July, 1587:

The 15 soldiers are gone.

White is in charge. Twenty colonists are ferried to Croatoan by Captain Stafford, Lane's former officer, along with Manteo.

This book has become impossible to read. Chronology is impossible to follow.

At end of chapter, author suggests that the colonists were collateral damage. The real target was someone else. He implies the real target was Sir Walter Raleigh. Someone wanted to see him fail.

Chapter 14: Raleigh's Rise To Power Page 135

Raleigh born in 1552

Chapter 15: Political Turmoil

Such an incredibly confusing book. Now the author goes back to "political turmoil" starting in 1569.

Chapter 16:  The Players

The author suggests these suspects who may have wanted to removed Sir Walter Raleigh from the court: Leicester, hatton, Burghley, Walsingham, possibly aided by the Earl of Essex. Who stood the most to gain with the removal of SWR?

Chapter 17: The Motive

Raleigh has become Walsingham's worst enemy.

Chapter 18: The Game

Rastell's Conspiracy: "A similar crime had been committed before. Fernandez's stalling; his betrayal of John White (an artist); his claim that the summer was too far spent; his mutiny: very neatly done, but hardly original. Surely Walsingham, as Secretary of State, had access to the records and knew it had happened before. It was an easy matter to replicate John Rastell's voyage of 1517."

Chapter 19: The Fall





Begins with John White's return.




Part Four: Who Are The Mandoag?

Chapter 20: Raleigh's Search

Five years after banishment, SRW returns to the Queen's court in 1597.




Chapter 21: Jamestown

Chapter 22: War on the Powhatan

Chapter 23: Requiem

Chapter 24: Deep In The Interior

Chapter 25: Who Are The Mandoag? START WITH PAGE 251!

Chapter 26: Epilogue